Depicting Art (of Riding)

 

Museum Finds

 (german here)




The Horse of Phideas / Cavallo in bronzo dal Vicolo delle Palme

  

At our visit to the museums of the Capitoline Hill in Rome in May 2012 we accidently stumbled upon a bronze statue of a horse, hidden behind the paperwalls of the "Lux in Arcana". It became immediately clear to me, that this was the most beautiful depiction of the "school halt". Possibly, too, it is the oldest depiction of this stance!
Although this lesson/movement, recently rediscovered, is very old, the term "school halt" (meaning a super-collection in standing) has been agreed on by the academic riders as lately as 2011!

(See also   knighthoodoftheacademicartofriding).  Through my discovery someone might even be able to find out the ancient greek word for school halt, who knows?

Unearthed in 1849 in Rome-Trastevere  under this house , it was renovated some years ago with the sponsoring of a gallop-racing entity. People then imagined it's stance as a sort of carriere, the explosive start of a galopp racehorse.

The statue was supposedly created  around 500 B.C., possibly by Phideas, a famous sculptor.

As there is new knowledge about the old art of riding being produced every year by researching riders, now the stance of this horse can be made clear: It is the "school halt" (german: "Schulparade"), a stance which occurs in the transition from a deeply collected standing horse to the horse on his hind legs in a very deep levade. For the dep levade horse has to bend it's hind quarters low and elevate the shoulders until the forelegs leave the ground. If the rider masters this transition perfectly, the school halt occurs in between, where the horse already lifts one leg, before levading fully. It takes many years of gymnastication of the horse to reach this stadium, no wonder Phideas and the orderer of the statue valued it so much to built a very precious statue on this theme!






School-Halt / Arrêt d'école / Arrêt sur les hanches / Schulparade

 


Who knows, possibly, at the high time of riding culture in ancient greece, there might have existed a whole alley of statues, depicting the various steps in educating a horse for the high school of riding?

Sadly bronze is valuable and easy to melt, so this statue survived only, because it's owner had hidden it very, very well!

Visiting the statue a second time  in May 2015 I had the opportunity to take some measurements:

Length of the horse from ischiatic tuberosity to bug joint: 150 cm, hight to the withers from the imagined ground: 144cm, distance from the middle of the standing front hoof's lateral rim to the withers: 150cm: a truly squarely built stallion! Breadth of the breast: 42cm. Length of cannon bone: 30cm. Lenght and breadth of hoofprint : 10cm each.

 We noticed again that not only saddle with rider had been cut out but the stallion's penis and scrotum, too.

 During the excellent dinner in the restaurant above the bronze horse's discovery site (at the same time had been found a piece of a huge bull and a wonderful statue of a greek athlet) the owner told us some facts: the basement is 80 years older than the colosseum and the house itself is Rome's oldest with an unchanged structure, it was built around 1075!

 

 He had heard of another theory by the researchers: After narrowly winning the battle against the Persian fleet, Alexander the Great commissioned the sculptor Lisippos (4th century before C.) to build a memorial showing the 24 felled generals on horse. This memorial was stolen after the subjugation of Greece through the commander  Quintus Cecilius Metellus "Macedonico" und transported to Rome. There it was last seen in the 5th century after Christ by a pilgrim, who reported one of the horses standing on 3 legs.

 Sitting directly beside the open basement door dinner was exciting twice as much!

A third theory is mentioned on the Italian wikipedia page, saying that it's builder could well have been Aegias, the teacher of Phidias.

See also:

http://www.illaboratoriosrl.com

http://www.repubblica.it


http://www.arsetfuror.com

http://roma.repubblica.it/multimedia


https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavallo_in_bronzo_dal_vicolo_delle_Palme

http://ristorantespiritodivino.com/1/la_storia_252858.html

 



 




A Greeting from Naples

 

 

 Between the over thousand very lively figurines  of the neapolitane Christmas crib (crafted around 1750 in Naples)  we find several horses in lessons of the high school of riding (the  saracene(?) below in a school halt); lessons the artists had been able to observe daily in their hometown Naples, which had been the seat of one of the best riding academies for hundreds of years during  renaissance and baroque.        

 Here Antoine de Pluvinel had been educated, here he had refined Federico Grisone's  teaching of a soft horse-training free of violence.

 Up to now, a figurine of the school halt directly from this time has been unknown to me!

(in  the Palau March Museo, Palma de Mallorca)

 

 

 



 

 

 

 Links:
other pictures of the crib in the Bildergalerie
















Turkish School Halt


Thomas Allom shows us a school halt from Constantinople (now Istanbul) from ab. 1835 :



 to view the complete picture click here














































Philips Wouwerman, Army Camp, c. 1660 - 1670 (Mauritshuis, Den Haag, Netherlands)





























Philips Wouwerman


















Philips Wouwerman


















Philips Wouwerman
















Philips Wouwerman









Ladies with servants  preparing for the hunt. Etching in 1738 by Jean Moyreau, after a painting by Philips Wouwerman (1619-1668)

Moyreau crafted many many etchings after the pictures of great artists, and out of the 500 to 1000 paintings ascribed to Pilipps Wouwerman, he made over 80 which served as base for hundreds of  pressed copies; and some of these deliver to us pictures long lost.

In these etchings (at least in the reproductios of today) that they are very often depicted side-mirrored. Orientation is possible mostly by the knowledge, that most men are right-handed and so wear the sword on the left side, and also the reins in the left hand.




 



Philips Wouwerman



















Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Germany


















Philips Wouwerman


















Etching by Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman


















Philips Wouwerman
















Philips Wouwerman


















Philips Wouwerman,Museum of fine Arts, Budapest, Ungarn









Etching by Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman



















Etching by Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman














Etching by Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman






















Etching by Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman
































Indian School Halt:

In the online Search of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam I found an East-Indian School Halt from 1577:


 webadress here
 










School Halt In War:

Also from the database of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam:
















Tiepolo










Sketch by Leonardo da Vinci























Here my latest School Halt finds in the online database of the British Museum, London:







Roman glass sealstone, 3. bis 1. century before Chr.


British Museum, London, Great Britain














 




 



Also said to be created by Phideas: the Parthenon freeze (most of it in the British Museum now):



 
The horse on the left shows a School Halt (British Museum, London, Great Britain)




















In the french Joconde database I found the following depictions:











































































































































School Halt from Antwerpen








Unfinished picture by Pieter Paul Rubens, (1577 - 1640), in the Rubenshouse, Anterwepen


















School Halt by an American-Indian






Catlin, George:The Running Fox on a Fine Horse - Saukie; 1861/1869 (National Gallery of Art, Washinton, USA)
 















Soldier's horse in a school halt




In the Palazzo Venezia, Rome, Italy























Two school halts before a war charriot: in front a bent one, behind a straight one:



Foto H.-P.Haack











 

 

Please notice the holding of the reins, another kind of 3:1 : the left "snaffle"rein between thumb and indexfinger of the right (!) hand, the right "snaffle"rein by the left (!) hand!

This prevents pulling the horse around by the inside rein, as only the desired "shoving" against the outside part of the neck is possible for turning the horse..

 


















From the Tang Dynasty









1753, engraved by Jean Daullé ?, painted by  Philibert Benoît de La Rue ?  

Nestier here presents a school-halt in a wonderful easy manner.

He uses the Gueriniere-seat: the rein-hand standing upright with the thumb pointing forwards (assumingly the hand is supinated slightly ab. 10°); the switch ends within the rider's palm.

The rider holds his legs before the horse.

To produce the school-halt he pulls his shoulder-blades even more together and more downwards, by this the rider's breastbone advances forwards significantly; the horse's mid-back is somewhat relieved  by slightly raising the rider's heels and, additionally,the upper thorax of the horse gets unburdened by a stirrup-tread on both sides because now the rider's thighs gets wider.

He exerts a slight pinky-pull with the rein-hand which leads to a backwards tilt of the rider's pelvis. So the rider's back comes to be a mirror of the horse's back: Erection of the forehand coupled with a tilted pelvis.

In this picture he presents a special, very complicated situation for the support of the right-bending in a not very far educated horse: leading the right curb-rein with the right hand in a lower position, just as Gueriniere described 20 years earlier in his “Ecole de cavalerie”. (A rider with only some years of academic training better should use the left-hander seat if having problems with the right-bending, all the more, if he is using an unbroken mouth-bit!).

 

The curb with a very short lower branch makes the rein-action even more difficult, as with this even a small rein-displacement leads to an impact.

Deviating from Gueriniere's depictions he holds the switch downwards (in the ski-stick position) and leads the right curb-rein between ring- and middle finger. The switch lies fast at the right thigh, to prevent as much pronation of the switch hand as possible and to give the hand as much freedom of movement over the switch's end. Holding the hand this way makes the right-bending even more difficult to achieve, as the rider cannot try inducing the horse to it by laying the switch parallel to the left side of the horse's neck.

The rope, which serves as a second pair of reins is not used at the moment; interestingly it is fastened at an additional neck-strap which itself is fastened at the curb's eye (the point where the chain is attached). This means that by tightening both pairs of reins simultaneously, the leverage of lower branches is neutralized completely.


(Old report about über Nestier here)













Natural stance of the wild horse



Picture taken from the website of Dr. Brian Hampson and Prof. Chris Pollitt.

I met Brian at his wonderful lectures about hoof health in the wild living horses of the australian outback during the 7th. symposion on hooves by the  DHG in Leipzig, Germany..






Good instruction here:  Feine Hilfen 



A wonderful teaching video about the school halt one can find here:    School-Halt 















Other depictions of strong halts in the standing horse:



 

 

The slight halt we produce initially when starting academic work with  Placing And Bending at  the hand ( Placing of the horse's head and bending of the horse's  body) with a small longitudinal  pushing backwards  of the horse's center of gravity we could call an eigth of a school-halt.

 






The next stage, a fourth of a school-halt, we could imagine in this:





Parthian belt buckle, 3rd to 4th century after christ (British Museum, London, Great Britain)





 





A half school-halt, still without lowering of the haunches, would then possibly be pictured as the following:



Baked clay imprint  (3000-6000 years old!) from Ur, Mesopotamia (British Museum, London, Great Britain)











The School Halt as a Political Statement






In "The Departure of a Dignitary from Middelburg" by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne (1615) the affluent, important riders let themselves be seen in a school halt.
As the levade was allowed only to noblemen, the had choosen the lesson most near the levade.  (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)













"The Entry of Maurits in den Haag 1594"by Christian Indewiik, 1851-1863, shows a school halt with the opposite political meaning:The nobleman Maurits von Nassau Oranje,
 later on Prince of  Orange, is shown here as a servant of the Dutch Republic, more as a burgher than a noble.
 Had there been an original of the 16. century or had there actually been a living  model? (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
















































That Napoleon let himself depicted in the school halt repeatedly can, at least at the beginning, be viewed as a symbol for his proximity to the people and a demonstration against the nobility.
That's the reason that for propaganda purposes he let himself painted "preferably on a wild horse" after the crossing of the alps (in reality he rode on a donkey). To prevent a too close association with the noble's-levade, the painter could realise this only as a rearing horse (picture), with from then on counted as modern, socially acceptable and progressive. But as we now know again, teaching the horse to rear leads to a dramatic worsening of school halt and levade, if  not prevents it completely. So Napoleon's propaganda led directly to the degeneration of the riding skills on top of the great loss of good riders and horses in and after the french revolution!
 

No wonder in the run of the 19.century the school halts deteriorated and the levade degenerated into a circus lesson.








The sculptors A.D. von Fernkorn/Franz Pönninger und Ernst Haehnel succeded 1874 very well in depicting this extreme rift in the way of riding with his double rider monument on the Brunswick palace square :
In passing it I'm always glad to see how near my horses and I have come to the way of the old one, despite our only small achievements!
(The father on the left with supinated hands and therefore a much more relaxed belly: see also page "Research":
  here

 

 by User:Brunswyk (User:Brunswyk) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) oder CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons





 






The Increasing Degeneration of the School Halt during the 19th century














































Statue of king Leopold I of Belgium, 1863, on Leopoldsplaats, Antwerpen.
(Photo © www.aviewoncities.com)















With this sketch Pablo Picasso recorded for us what people remembered of the school halt in 1905 (trying for a remembrance of the walk-passage (= real spanish walk) in the right upper corner, see also below.

(National Gallery of Art, Washinton, USA)







 

 


School Walk = School Trot = Walk-Passage?



La Broue's (1595) description of the "pas d'escole": "The pas d'escole shall be: restrained ("adverty"), shortened, and light-footed, contrary to the detached and slow walk cross-country or during strolling before and after the lesson." (I/S.103).

Gueriniere writes: "The movement in the "pas d'ecole" is more cadenced, shortened and united than in the field-walk."  At one point he advises us, “to change from a shortened "pas d'ecole" into a passage”  (without specifying if a walk-passage or a trot-passage is meant).  

Obviously both mean a collected, four-beated walk.


Prizelius (1777) to the contrary writes : "One differentiates the school-walk from the normal walk, which was given this name very unsatisfyingly, and should really be called "school-trot", as it actually is a pulled together, shortened trot. The only difference of the normal trot to the school-walk is, that the latter is slower, shorter and unified, everything else is the same in both. In both one finds two beats and one time in between, whereas in the walk one expects more of them. It is much better to call this gait "Action", and to say, if the horse is going in a school-trot:" it is going in action", ..... 


This explanation points to a change of meaning of the the word "school-walk" at around 1750, which would explain Ridinger's and Eisenberg's depictions, which show an action of the trot as a school-walk. A translation error?
Because "pas d'ecole" can mean "school-step" (= walk) as well as "school-tread" (= trot).

But Saunier's "passage au pas" can only be translated as "walk-passage". Here Saunier has chosen the other way: the very collected trot on the haunches is so slow, that he calls it "walk" despite its staying two-beated. With this name he would, with the words of Gueriniere "Passage in Walk", possibly say the same as Prizelius with his "school-trot"? Then from around 1750 "school-walk", "school-trot" und "walk-passage" would have been the same, or at least very similar?










School-Walk, Ridinger, 1760











School-Walk, Ridinger











School-Walk: Baron von Eisenberg, 1746, in  "Wohleingerichtete Reitschule oder Beschreibung der allerneuesten Reitkunst"

(citation from the teaching video "School Walk" by Bent Branderup: HIER  















From the "L'Art de la Cavalerie" by Gaspard Saunier: He explicitly calls it: the "passage in walk".

 

"Passage" and  "Passege" and the "Sideways"


 

 

Grisone, Broue und Pluvinel used the term "Passege/Passeige" derived from "strolling", in Italian: "passegiare"(= spazieren). Somewhat later  William Cavendish/Newcastle began to use the name "Passage": from this time on mostly this term is used.

 

"Passege" was used for two different kinds of movement: If the horse is going sideways in a collcted gait, with an angle of ar. 80°, a diagonalization of the walk occurs, which leads to a two-beated walk (normal is four-beated). This Two-Beat was kept in the "Strolling" straight-ahead, but despite being a different movement, the name remained unchanged!

Thus irritatingly, the term is used not only for a sideways movement, but a straight ahead movement, too (so in the German translation of Pluvinel's "passeige"  is translated sometimes by "promenading").



 

 

Saunier at least specifies by adding "Walk" to "Passage", which gait he means, Gueriniere nearly never specifies which gait is meant, or even if straight or sideways is meant..So Daniel Knöll in his german transanslation of Gueriniere of 1791 always choose  „Spanish Walk“  („Spanish Tread“ would have been the alternative for the trot).

 

 

 


 

Passege and Passage: Citations


Broue (1595): "Passege: Pace in a restrained and shortened school-walk either in the voltes [by which he means also: carrees] and also in riding straight forward." (I/S.10)

"... when the horse passegieres on the volte, his or hers action is always supported by one foreleg and one hind leg on the ground, meanwhile the other two legs are in the air...."[= diagonalized, two-beated action] (II/S.97).

He uses "Passege" for the walk-passege, sometimes as a light croupe-in, but often for a 80°-sideways.

With him the term "passage" means more "the passing", he uses it for example for covering a distance in Mezairs or Courbettes. 


Pluvinel ( before 1620): The true Passeige is a shortened walk, the horse performs somewhat livelier than the normal walk, but not as lively as the trot (no mentioning of a two-beated walk).


Newcastle (1658) writes about the “Passage upon a walk, which has the action of the trot”, but also about a passage in the trot. In his dictionary he defines: "Passage: to passage a horse, is to make him go upon a walk or a trot upon two pistes or treads, between the two heels, and sideways, so that his hips make a track parallel to that made by his shoulders." He views the diagonalized walk as a result of the sideways moving of the horse (with him for example with the croupe to the pilar in the same 80°  angle as Gueriniere's croupe-au-mure). He writes: "When the forelegs are crossing, the inner hindleg moves to the side, and when the hindlegs are crossing, the inner foreleg moves to the side, so this is the action of a trot.")(= two-beated).

In his second book (1667) at the first two times he uses the term "Passege", after that only "Passage".


In the chapter "About passegeing straight-forward and where and when", the authors     N. & L. Santa Paulina (1696)  write in the L'Arte de cavallo, S.96:  "There are four ways to passege a horse.... To passege in walk means that the horse elevates his foreleg and hindleg as in the trot, but not in the exactly very moment as in the trot, merely with a not perceivable pause before moving the other leg; the horse lifts the forelegs higher than the hindlegs, and when the horse lifts the legs equally high on both sides, it is called a Passegio, which, despite not being as gracefully as in the trot, is majestic nevertheless and appropriate for a prince."


Gueriniere (1733) writes: “The passage, which in former times was called Passege (from the ital. word "Spassegio", which means stroll), is a measured walk or trot. The horse holds, as in the trot, both opposite legs crosswise for a longer time in the air than in the ordinary trot, so that the leg in the air moves forward no more than one shoe before the one on the ground."


Saunier (before 1748) calls the Passege "Walk-Passage", but he also describes (after Newcastle?) the normal walk as two-beated, with crosswise moved legs just like in the trot.”


Eisenberg (1748) speaks of the

a."Walk of the horse, which is well trained and lifts his legs crosswise together, which is short and measured, contrary to the walk of a utility-horse, which is low, long and slow." The word Passage is used in his book only for the floating-trot.

 

b.: "passager un cheval" means: to passage a horse in a tread on two hoofbeats, by letting it go along a wall or to the side, so that it yields to the rider's calves, and holds the croupe in, so that haunches and shoulders make two parallel lines (s. Traverser),                             

c. "passager par le droit" [straight forwards;DA] is different to the afore mentioned passaging, but is found on only few riding schools, as it is difficult to teach to ahorse. Such horses are suitable for publich entries, as to horse-ballets and other solemnities.

d. "longeur, passager un cheval des sa longeur" means, to let a horse go on narrow voltes on two hoof-beats, so the croup is in the round, the length of the horse nearly makes the half diameter of the volte, and the horse is kept always between both calves, without the croupe falling out and falsifying the school.

 



In the french Grisone (1550) translation of 1579 by Sébillet  the "Incavallare" (sideways-pasege) during the "Mezza Volta" (Demi-Volte) to the left while crossing the forelegs is depicted.






The word  "Incavallare" means riding sideways on a normal volte, with the croupe to its center.  Maybe this word now could get to be our unequivocal term for the 80°-sideways? The counterpart, the croupe-out in the 80°-angle on the renvers-carree we could call the "Excavallare" .  This word-couple thus would never have been in use either for walk-passage, trot-passage, promenading, nor for the former lessons croupe-in or croupe-out.

(The rider surley is right-handed, to be assumed by the positin of his sword, but here he uses the left-hander seat!).





Fiaschi, too, shows a picture of the sideways:








In the Dictionnaire de Manege from 1741  LINK (p. 761 in the  PDF/p.165 in the Dictionnaire) I found the following entries:

 

PASSAGE: The Passage, ecxecuted according to the common proportions and distances, is the only tool to accomodate the horse to every other kind of lessons, and the best lesson to train, after one has educated the horse to move well from the hand, to stop and to turn.  It uses all the proportions and distances deeming necessary to the rider: be it forwards, backwards, sideways, much or less, with more or less hand-action while turning, in enlarging or diminishing, in accelerating by one or both heels,  just as it is desired, on one hand equally as on the other.

The Passage develops, when the horse during turning or moving sideways crosses his legs, the hind legs somewhat less than the forelegs; to execute a Passage on Volte, the forelegs have to produce a circle a bit near the length of the horse and the hind legs another one, which is smaller.

[….]

PASSAGING: Promenading the horse in walk or trot; To passager a horse on voltes; Passager a volte; some say: passeging, but  passaging is the usual word.


PASSEGING: Leading a  horse sideways on two tracks in walk or trot, so the hind draws a track parallel to the one of the shoulders. The passeging in trot has not been in use for long: the word passeging means actually: to promenade a horse on two tracks, between two heels. It is also expressed: to passege a horse or to promenade a horse. 

One  passeges a horse on a straight line and on voltes. In this sense ist is used less often than passaging.

One passeges a horse on two tracks along a wall or a hedge. One passeges also on voltes of  the horse's length, by leading it sideways around the centre, whereat it shall look into the volte and its shoulders shall walk before the hindlegs. In both cases the horse shall cheval [the ital. "incavallare" became "enchevaler" in fr., then "chevaler"; DA] his legs extremely, this means, the outside front leg crosses the inside one every second beat. In the  Passege the movement of the horse is the same as in walk and trot. but more animated in trot.

The Passege straight forward is a lesson used seldomly in France, but frequently in Italy and even more in Germany. One chosses for this a horse without fire, but with much movement. One teaches it in the Passege straight forwards to lift two legs simultaneously, a fore- and a hindleg, as in the Cross of Andrew. At putting down the two legs it lifts the other pair in alternation, holding them in the air in the same height and duration, gaining not more ground than one foot [= 30cm;DA]. The beauty of the Passege consists in holding the legs in the air for a long time. The movement of the legs in this Passege is the same as in walk or trot, as they are moving in the same order. The only difference is, that they are held longer in the air in the Passege straight forwards.

Horses assured in this lesson and in the piaffe  are proper for use in the Caroussel or for public cermonies.

The difference between the piaffe and the Passege is, when the horse piaffers naturally, it does not hold the legs so long in the air as in the Passege straight forwards.

One needs a great artisanship for the Passege straight forwards and the horse at least two or three years in the manege; and if two out of six horses turn out well, it is much!"



For the 80°-sideways we could use: to inchevaler and to exchevaler. (La Broue uses the verb "chevaler" as synonym for the simple crossing over of the legs. This word derives from the Italian "incavallare", which chabged in the french translation to "enchevaler", both have the same meaning: an 80°-siedeways with the grouipe inside the volte. Later one called a horse, which often or constantly passaged/piffed of his own volitin when agitated,  a "chevaler").


Alternative for terming: Full-Travers for the 80°-Travers and Full-Renvers for the 80°-Renvers.




 

But the simplest way might be to introduce redefinitions of the  words "Travers" und "Renvers" as follow:

1. The Travers is a sideways movement in an angle of 80° to the line one is moving along in a very collected gait,  with the horse's head bent into the direction of movement, if the horse's croupe points to the middle of the manege-figure. Any other degree is called travers-like.

2. The Renvers is a sideways movement in an angle of 80° to the line one is moving along in a very collected gait, with the horse's head bent into the direction of movement, if the horse's croupe points outwards. Any other degree is called Renvers-like.

3. For the sideways movement along a wall we should use only the term "Croupe-au-Mure", to prevent putting the horse's head to the wall, as this is harmful.



Thus we would be able to describe the training after Gueriniere exactly and simply as follows: starting at first with the Croupe-au-Mure in walk,  after that going on to the smaller Carrees in the Walk-Renvers, later then further in the Walk-Travers on Carrees and later on in Demi-Voltes in passades.    












 












Platin-Moretus-Museum, Antwerpen, Belgien    >>> more pictures

























Strong Walk-Passage executed correctly: Simultaneity of the diagonal movement, the hind leg is elevated in the same extremness as the front leg, no pushing away of the back.

(Landesmuseum Braunschweig)



























































Greecian coin, 3.Cent BC .











 











Walk-Passage










Trot-Passage








Trot-Passage

















The Perfect Seat on a Pad




The artist depicts Marc Aurel in an exemplarily balanced, truly light seat: the rider nearly floating in complete equilibrium; giving the utmost finest aids for a slight croupe-in during a trot-passage, on a saddle pad without stirrups with a one-handed, crosswise led reins. 1.500 years later, Gueriniere will write:" outside a manege only the posture Half a croupe in is suitable.

The rein-hand is supinated maximally, the right hand pronated nearly maximally.

 (For a secure stand of the statue, the artist regrettably had to do without a correct depicting of the left hind leg, which in reality will have been held higher and more to the front).

 

 The name "Floating-Trot" for the trot-passage in this case, without stirrups, doesn't stand only for the movement of the horse, which shows a prolonged floating trot-phase, but also for the feeling of the rider on a pad without stirrups:  if the horse is going this softly, the rider's thighs are wandering up ever more. Thus the rider now holds his legs not only "before the horse",  but in this case even, as I'm calling it: "over the horse"! This very comfortable posture can be seen in the mesopotamic school-halt, too.




   

     



(Original in the  Musei Capitolini, Rome, 2. Century a. Chr.; copy-cast on the Piazza del Campidoglio. The gilded bronze statue didn't get molten down only because for centuries it was believed to show the christian emperor Konstantin).




































 


 

 

This sketch I found in the book „ Nouvelle Methode …., Traduction nouvelle“ (new translation of the English, second book by William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle of 1667, executed by Jacques de Solleysel), and publicized in Paris, 1677 (Cavendish had died in the year before), and I hope to contribute hereby a little bit to the retrieval of his honour. Solleysel as a good artist probably has done the sketch himself.

This etching shows us, what in Solleysel's view was a more correctly and better depiction of Cavendish's actual intention for his first book in French. The finely done etchings in that luxurious book of 1658 show mostly anatomically and equestrially incorrect over-bendings of the horses' heads and necks. The Terre-a-Terre shown here conforms also with the „preceptes“ of La Broue, who recommended only very little bending in the neck. So here we see only a light and correct action by the inner cavesson rein, just as Cavendish often recommends in his texts.

In the second book of 1667, by the way, there aren't any pictures at all, and at this time there was a rumour (strewn by Cavendish himself?) , that the printing plates of the pictures had been destroyed.


Regrettably Solleysel has been the only one, who used these corrections for the faulty pictures! Because one can get easily get very confused by these books, which mostly bear the same title, following here is an overview:


The first book was written by Cavendish 1658 in English, he let it be consecutively be translated and publicized in French:

1658 "La Methode Nouvelle...", William Cavendish/Newcastle, Antwerp, (fr.), with anatomically and equestrially wrong depictions


The second book he wrote and publicized in English in a somewhat simple quality was:

1667 "A New Method...", William Cavendish/Newcastle (eng.) , London, without depictions


1677 "Methode nouvelle ..", Jacques Solleysel, in parts heavily altered translation into French of the second, English book of 1657; Paris, (fr.), with correct depictions

1700 "Neu eröffnete Reitbahn", faithful copy of Solleysel's translation of 1677, together with a German translation of Solleysel's text; Bernauer/Pernauer, Nürnberg (ger.) ; regrettably Bernauer had arranged for etchings to be made as nearly exact copies of the faulty depictions, with the same wrong over-bendings as 1658. (I think, Solleysel would never had agreed to this, but he had died 20 years before).

1737 Brindley printed in London an identical copy of the first, French book of 1658 with the resurfaced actual plates, lent to him by the granddaughter of Cavendishs, so againanatomically and equestrially wrong depictions

1743 Brindley printed an English translation of the first, French book of 1658, here also he uses the beautiful, butanatomically and equestrially wrong depictions of Dieppenbeck of 1658.


The art rider of today thus has the following means for getting to know some or all of Cavendish's (and additionally Solleysel's) recommendations in these three books:

 

a.: if she speaks only German, she can only read Bernauer's German translation, 1700, of the French (amended) translation by Solleysel of Cavendish's first, English book.

b.: if she speaks English, she can read

 

    1. the English original (second book 1667) as a facsimile, needing a little bit fantasie sometimes to guess the meaning of the somewhat old English used here,

    2. the English translation of the first book (1658) by Brindley of the year 1743 (antiquarian in the „Allens Classic Series, 3“, with the still more confusing title „A General System of Horsemanship“, 2000, Britain/Hongkong.


c.: if she understands French, she can:

      1. read the first book (1658) as original in the internet at www2.vetagro.fr (see below) or

      2. the French, amended translation of the second English book (1667) by Solleysel in 1677 („third book“, as I call it) or the identical text in Bernauer (1700)



OUVRAGES EN LIGNE - Liste des auteurs

 



Imagination in 1833, about the Duchess of Newcastle accompanying her husband William Cavendish at the stag hunt

Lithographie by Charles Motte, ar. 1833, after Ch.Aubrey


"Here the  Duchesse is greatly admired by the Cpt. Bazin"


Here Aubrey has copied the faulty, overbent posture of the horse's head in the Dieppenbeck etchings in Cavendish's first book



"The Duchess receives instructions by the Duke, to always be attentive to disturbances or mistakes, which could endanger her seat"




 

(Actually it is very unlikely, that the horse expert Cavendish would have agreed to his wife accompanying a stag hunt on a side-saddle. As Prizelius warns 1777 in his appendix: „Etwas für Liebhaberinnen der Reiterey“ in the chapter „Anweisung zum Reiten für Dames“ with good reason against riding the insecure side saddle outside a protected surrounding, as any time there could shoot a dog through a hedge, or some chickens could suddenly fly up, or similar surprises could occur, which makes the horse jumping away unexpectedly. On top of that, the rider very often lets the rains hang through, which makes the horse careless, sleepy and leads to him stumbling, and the repertoire of aides is quite reduced riding in this fashion, too.)

 


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